Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you, which of the methods is best? Why?
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Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you, which of the methods is best? Why?
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An important aspect of farming is animal breeding. It is the method of mating used when breeding occurs between members of the interrelated individuals. Several methods are involved in animal breeding, which can be classified into the following categories:

 (i) Natural methods: It is the method involving inbreeding and out-breeding. Breeding which occurs between animals of the same breed is known as inbreeding, while breeding between animals of different breeds is known as out-breeding. Out-breeding of animals is of three types: → Out-crossing: It is the method of mating of animals within the same breed with no common ancestors on either side up to 4-6 generations. → Cross-breeding: In this type of out-breeding, the superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed. The desirable qualities of two different breeds are allowed. → Interspecific hybridization: It is the mating between male and female animals of two different species.

 (ii) Artificial methods of breeding involves modern techniques of breeding, which are of two types: → Artificial insemination: It is a process followed by collection of semen (collected from the male) into the oviduct or the uterus of the female body by the breeder. Various problems faced in abnormal mating can be overcomed by this method of breeding. → Multiple ovulation embryo technology (MOET): It is a technique in which super-ovulation is induced by a hormone injection for the improvement of the cattle. Then, fertilization is completed by artificial insemination and early embryos are collected. Each of those embryos are then transplanted into the surrogate mother for further development of the embryo. Artificial method of breeding is one of the best methods to carry out animal breeding, which includes artificial insemination and MOET technology. These technologies are scientific in nature. Certain problems of normal mating can be minimized and have a high success rate of crossing between mature males and females. Also, the production of hybrids with the desired qualities can be ensured. From the male, a small amount of semen can be used to inseminate several cattle as semen is not destroyed. Therefore, it is highly economical.
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